6. Resources

Appendix 1: Survey of Information and Resources

Research Methods Knowledge Base: A comprehensive web-based textbook that addresses all of the topics in a typical introductory undergraduate or graduate course in social research methods. Although much of what it covers goes beyond the boundaries of survey research, it does have some useful basic information about sampling, measurement, survey design, and data analysis. It also addresses the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures; and ethics. It is written so as to be accessible to experts and non-experts alike. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/.

Designing Surveys: A Guide to Decisions and Procedures, Czaja, R and J. Blair. 1995. Pine Forge Press

How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide, Fink, Arlene. 1998. Sage Publications

The Good Research Guide: For Small-Scale Social Research Projects. Denscombe, M. 1998. Open University Press

NOAA Coastal Services Center: Social Science Tools for Coastal Programs, Introduction to Survey Design and Delivery. http://hurricane.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/publications/survey-design.

Improving Survey Questions: Fowler, F. 1995. Sage Publications

What is Qualitative Interviewing? http://www.public.asu.edu/~ifmls/artinculturalcontextsfolder/qualintermeth.html

The Power of Survey Design: A User’s Guide for Managing Surveys, Interpreting Results, and Influencing Respondents, Iarossi, G. 2006. World Bank Publications.

Cognitive Inerviewing: A “How to” Guide”, Willis G.B., R.A. Casper and J.T. Lessler. 1999. Research Triangle Institute.

Yukon North Slope Research Guide: http://www.wmacns.ca/conservation/ltrmp/researchguide/.

Appendix 2: Community Based Monitoring in Conservation and Natural Resource Management

A compilation of case studies and peer reviewed articles on application of CBM in conservation and resource management in the developing countries: http://monitoringmatters.org.

AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment,Volume 36, Issue 7 (November 2007) pp. 566-570: “Increasing Conservation Managment Action by Involving Local People in Natural Resource Management” by Finn Danielsen et al.

Biodiversity and Conservation, special issue 14:2507-2820, 2005.

Appendix 3: Governance in Arctic communities Canadian Indigenous Governance Structure

Canadian Indigenous governance is divided among three officially recognized groups:

  1. First Nations: First Nations represent approximately 500 tribal organizations divided among all of Canada’s 10 provinces and 3 territories with the exception of the territory of Nunavut which is entirely Inuit. First Nations overall is represented by the Assembly of First Nations (http://www.afn.ca). The group is further divided among 24 Provincial Territorial Organizations (http://www.afn.ca/index.php/en/about-afn/provincial-territorial-organizations)
  2. Inuit: The national Inuit organization in Canada is Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (http://www.itk.ca/ ) which represents Inuit in four regions:
    1. Nunatsiavut (Labrador),
    2. Nunavik (Northern Quebec),
    3. Nunavut, and the
    4. Inuvialuit Settlement Region in the Northwest Territories.
  3. Métis: The national Métis organization in Canada is the Métis National Council (http://www.metisnation.ca/) which represents Métis in five provinces via the following provincial organizations:
    1. Métis Nation of Ontario,
    2. Manitoba Métis Federation,
    3. Métis Nation – Saskatchewan,
    4. Métis Nation of Alberta, and
    5. Métis BC Nation.

Indigenous Peoples and the Canadian Government

The Canadian government maintains numerous resources related to Indigenous Peoples primarily under the auspices of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ ). These include the Aboriginal Canada Portal (http://www.aboriginalcanada.gc.ca/acp/site.nsf/eng/index.html ) which contains a database of National Aboriginal Organizations, as well as sections on environmental research and traditional and ecological knowledge. In addition, the portal provides a listing of over 700 unique First Nations, Inuit and Métis community pages with information such as community home page, statistical profiles, tribal council and other organization affiliations, mapping, and connectivity profiles. Other Canadian government agencies maintain a great deal of information related to Indigenous Peoples as well and can be contacted for more specific information, these include: Parks Canada (http://www.pc.gc.ca/ ), Fisheries and Oceans Canada (http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/), Environment Canada (http://www.ec.gc.ca/), Natural Resources Canada (http://www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/), and Health Canada (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/), these agencies also maintain field offices which may have specialized information about specific regions of the country.

Local government/indigenous government structures in Scandinavia

Sami: Sami governments in Scandinavia are represented by Sami Parliaments that are political bodies. Currently the Norwegian Saami Parliament (established in 1989) consists of 39 representative elected from 7 electoral districts in Norway. The Swedish Saami Parliament (established in 1993) consists of 31 members and Sweden is considered as on electoral district. A new Saami Parliament in Finland was given its powers in 1996, and 21 members were elected. The three Saami Parliaments do not have identical functions and tasks, but they all share rights to raise questions and issue political statements on all issues within their jurisdiction. The three parliaments form the Saami Parliamentary Council.

The Saami Council (NGO) is an umbrella organization of the Sami people in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia and it was established in 1956. www.saamicouncil.net

“The primary aim of the Saami Council is the promotion of Saami rights and interests in the four countries where the Saami are living, to consolidate the feeling of affinity among the Saami people, to attain recognition for the Saami as a nation and to maintain the economic, social and cultural rights of the Saami in the legislation of the four states. (Norway, Sweden, Russia and Finland). This objective can be achieved through agreements between these states and the bodies representing the Saami people, the Saami parliaments. Saami Council renders opinions and makes proposals on questions concerning Saami people’s rights, language and culture and especially on issues concerning Saami in different countries.” http://www.saamicouncil.net/?deptid=2178

In general, there are no strict research protocols established, such as in the North West Territories in Canada or Alaska, to conduct research in the Sami Territory or with the Sami people. A researcher should contact the local Sami organization and tell them about the new research and keep them informed. This is what has been done with projects like Snowchange. The Sami Council has eight member organizations from the 4 countries;

  1. Guoládaga Sámi Searvi (GSS) – Saami Association of Kola Peninsula
  2. Murmánskka guovllu Sámesearvi (OOSMO) – Saami Association of Murmansk Region
  3. Norgga Boazosápmelaččaid Riikkasearvi (NBR-NRL) 1. 2. – Saami Reindeer Herders’ Association of Norway. http://www.nrl-nbr.no/
  4. Norgga Sámiid Riikkasearvi (NSR) – Norwegian Saami Association
  5. Riikkasearvi Sámi Ätnam (RSÄ) – The National Association of Samiland Sámiid Álbmotlihttu (SÁL/SFF) – (People’s federation of the Saami)
  6. Sámiid Riikkasearvi (SR) – Saami Association of Sweden Suoma Sámiid Guovddášsearvi (SSG) – Saami Association of Finland

There are a number of various other Sami organizations, and the list can be found from here: http://www.saamicouncil.net/?deptid=2181

The University of Lapland has a database that has a collection of research conducted with the Sami people or in their region. Database can be found at: http://arcticcentre.ulapland.fi/radju/Tietokanta.aspx

Conducting research in Sweden:

Guidelines on where to get information and financing (EU based): http://ec.europa.eu/youreurope/business/ competing-through-innovation/conducting-research/ sweden/index_en.htm

Sweden’s own “The Researcher’s Mobility Program”: http://www.researchinsweden.se/

Conducting Research in Finland:

Guidelines on where to get information and financing (EU based): http://ec.europa.eu/youreurope/business/ competing-through-innovation/conducting-research/ finland/index_en.htm

National Advisory Board of Finland: http://www.tenk.fi There are research guidelines developed by the National Advisory Board of Finland that one should follow when conducting research. Different disciplines have their own norms and recommendations that should be followed in conducting research.

Conducting Research in Norway:

The Research Council of Norway provides advice and financing for researchers: http://www.forskningsradet.no/en/Home_page/1177315753906

Alaska Native Tribes and the U.S. Government

In Alaska there are approximately 230 federally recognized Tribes. Federal recognition marks the distinct and unique legal relationship that exists between the U.S. Federal Government and Tribal Governments. Alaska has nearly 40% of the nations Tribes. Alaska Tribes maintain the inherent authority and right to continue governing themselves. This includes but is not limited to maintaining and strengthening their distinct political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while retaining their right to participate fully, if they so choose, in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the State.

With the passing of the Alaska Native Claims settlement act in 1971, twelve regional corporations were created and later there was a thirteenth region added which was created for Alaska Native peoples living outside of Alaska. In addition to the regional corporations, there are also individual village corporations. These corporations are state chartered entities with shareholders and their primary focus is based on revenue building. Unlike Native Corporations, Tribal Governments fundamental work is based around governing and protecting the health and well being of their Tribal Citizens and future generations. With corporations focus on revenue and Tribal Governments focus on Tribal Citizens, a clash is often created causing a revenue based perspective to crash into a traditional and cultural perspective. This single issue has often acted as a divide and conquer tactic splitting regions, towns, communities, villages and even families.

Please note that Tribal Governments should not be confused with Tribal entities, Native regional corporations, village corporations, and Native non-profits or State chartered boroughs or communities.

Alaska Native Tribes and the State of Alaska

Currently the State of Alaska does not officially recognize Tribes. The State of Alaska maintains an extensive database of community information online which includes community information summaries, detailed community information, local contact information, capital projects by community and community photos. In addition, virtually all state agencies are aware of Tribes and Indigenous communities, in particular, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game Division of Subsistence, which monitors the community subsistence information system among other data.

It should be noted that federal, state and privately funded research takes place frequently in many areas of Alaska. For this reason regional native non-profits may have developed research guidelines. Tribes may have also developed their own guidelines. Researchers should inquire about any local regulations or guidelines and comply with them. The Alaska Native Science Commission has developed recommendations for research in Arctic communities. These guidelines can be found at: www.nativescience.org).

Alaska Regional Corporations

The following Alaskan non-profit regional institutions encompass the vast majority of the state and are as follows:

It should be noted that Federal, State and privately funded research takes place frequently in many areas of Alaska. For this reason regional entities have often developed research guidelines for use in their communities. Researchers should inquire about any local regulations or guidelines and comply with them. Alaska Native Science Commission (AKNSC) developed recommendations for research in the Arctic communities http://aknsc.org

Russian Indigenous Governance Structure

General information about Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East (RAIPON) can be found at http://www.raipon.info/en/

RAIPON was created in 1990 at the First Congress of Indigenous Peoples of the North. The Association was originally called the “Association of Peoples of the North of the USSR” and united 26 indigenous groups of the North. On November 24, 1993 the Association was registered as public political movement “Association of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of Russian Federation” and on July, 1999 it was reregistered at the RF Ministry of Justice as All-Russia public organization and received the registration number 2174. RAIPON is a non profit organization. Its goals are the protection of human rights, advocacy for the legal interests of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East, and addressing environmental, social and economic problems.

RAIPON unites 41 indigenous groups whose total population is around 250,000 people. These people are represented by 34 regional and ethnic organizations that have the authority to represent these groups both in Russia and in the international community.

Russian Indigenous Associations:

  1. Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Севера Приморского края – Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the Primorsky Krai. Ассоциация объединяет удэгейцев, нанайцев, тазов, орочей. Members: Udege, Nanai, Tazy, Orochi Tel/fax: (4232) 45-16-07. e-mail: mlicenter@yandex.ru, psulyandziga@mail.ru, www.udege.org.
  2. Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Чукотки – Association of the Indigenous Peoples of Chukotka. Ассоциация объединяет чукчей, чуванцев, эскимосов, эвенов, коряков, кереков, юкагиров. Members: Chukchi, Chuvan, Eskimo, Even, Koryak, Kerek, Yukagir, Tel.: (42 722) 2-60-75, Fax (42 722) 2-17-09.
  3. Камчатская краевая Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Севера – Kamchatka Regional Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North. President: Tatiana R. Frolova, Ассоциация объединяет коряков, ительменов, эвенов, алеутов, чукчей, камчадалов, Tel/fax: (4152) 49-01-32.
  4. Местная общественная организации Ассоциация КМНС «Корякия» – Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North “Koryakia”. Ассоциация объединяет алеутов, чукчей, ительменов, коряков, алюторцев, камчадалов, эвенов . Members: Aleut, Chukchi, Itelmen,Koryak, Alyutor, Kamchadal, Even Address: 3 Lenin Street 29, Palana, Tigilsky Raion, Koryaksky Autonomous Okrug, Russian federation 688000, Корякский автономный округ, Тигильский район, п.Палана, ул. Ленина 3 – 29.
  5. Алеутская Ассоциация «Ансарко» Камчатской области – Association of Indigenous Peoples of the Aleut District of the Kamchatsky Krai. Members: Aleut Tel.: (41547) 3-32, Tel/fax: (41547) 2-30, е-mail: veratim@mail.kamchatka.ru, aiarussia@yandex.ru.
  6. Межрегиональная общественная организация «Совет ительменов Камчатки «Тхсаном» – Interregional Itelmen Council of Kamchatka “Tkhsanom” Организация объединяет ительменов Корякского АО. Members: Itelmen in Koryak Autonomous Okrug Tel.: (41539) 28149, Tel/fax: (41539) 26629, е-mail: zapo@mail.kamchatka.ru.
  7. Региональный Совет уполномоченных представителей коренных малочисленных народов Сахалинской области – Regional Council of Representatives of Indigenous Peoples of the Sakhalin Oblast. Совет объединяет нивхов, нанайцев, эвенков, ороков. Members: Nivkh, Nanai, Evenk, Orok, Tel/fax 8 (4242) 42-50-35, 8 914 759 73 42, E-mail: rsup_kmns08@mail.ru.
  8. Региональная общественная организация «Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Севера Хабаровского края» – Regional Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Khabarovsk Krai. Ассоциация объединяет эвенков, эвенов, негидальцев, нанайцев, ульчей, орочей, удегейцев, нивхов. Members: Evenk, Even, Nigidal, Nanai, Ylchi, Orochi, Udege, Nivkh, Tel/fax: (4212) 30-90-47, Tel.: (4212) 31-38-44, е-mail: ulchi@inbox.ru.
  9. Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Севера Амурской области – Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Amur Oblast Ассоциация объединяет эвенков. Members: Even Tel/fax: (4162)35-47-36, е-mail: jialin59@mail.ru.
  10. Общественное движение «Ассоциация ненецкого народа “Ясавэй”» Ненецкого автономного округа – Association of the Nenets People “Yasavey”. Tel: (81853) 4-91-64, Fax: (81853) 4-91-63, е-mail: vladpskv@mail.ru, yasavey@atnet.ru, www.raipon.net/yasavey.
  11. Общественная организация Ханты-Мансийского АО «Спасение Югры» – NGO “Spasenie Yugry” (“Revival of Yugra”) of the Khanty-Mansiysky Okrug Ассоциация объединяет ханты, манси, ненцев. Members: Khanty, Mansi, Nenets, Tel/fax: (34671) 3-30-72, e-mail: noviuhovav@admhmao.ru, www. admhmao.ru.
  12. Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Севера Ямало-Ненецкого АО «Ямал – потомкам!» – Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Yamalo-Nenets AO “Yamal for Future Generations!” Ассоциация объединяет ханты, манси, ненцев. Members; Khanty, Mansi, Nenets, Tel.: (34922) 4-41- 30, Tel/fax: (34922) 3-46-64, е-mail: kui@salekhard.ru.
  13. Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Севера Таймырского (Долгано-Ненецкого) АО – Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) AO. Ассоциация объединяет ненцев, энцев, нганасан, эвенков, долган. Members: Nenets, Ents, Nganasan, Evenk, Dolgan, Tel.: (391-11) 5-88-33, Tel/fax: (391- 11) 2-29-39, е-mail: malid@dumatao.ru.
  14. Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Севера Эвенкийского АО «Арун» («Возрождение») – Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Evenkiysk AO “Arun” (“Rebirth”). Ассоциация объединяет эвенков, Members: Even TEl. (3912) 63- 63-62 внутр, е-mail: koptelkova@mail.ru.
  15. Ассоциация коренных малочисленных народов Севера Республики Саха (Якутия) – Association of Indigenous Peoples of the Sakha Republic. Ассоциация объединяет эвенков, эвенов, юкагиров, чукчей, долган. Members; Evenki, Even, Yukagir, Chukchi, Dolgan, Tel.: (4112) 43-53-80, Fax: (4112) 43-53-33 тел/факс: (38822) 2-31-54, е-mail: Robbek_KV@iltumen.sakha.ru, sumachakova@apra.gorny.ru.
  16. Общество эскимосов ЮПИК – Eskimo Society “Yupik” Tel/fax: (42735) 2-21-72, Tel.: (427-35) 2-29-46, е-mail: ainana@prues.chukotka.ru.
  17. Мурманская областная общественная организация «Ассоциация Кольских саамов» – Murmansk Regional Organizations of Kolsky Saami.

Regional Governments in the Russian Arctic:

Appendix 4. Knowledge System Concepts, Terminology and their Application

ANKN – The Alaska Native Knowledge Network is designed to serve as a resource for compiling and exchanging information related to Alaska Native knowledge systems and ways of knowing. It has been established to assist Native people, government agencies, educators and the general public in gaining access to the knowledge base that Alaska Natives have acquired through cumulative experience over millennia. http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/ index.html

Terminology/Basic Concepts

Local environmental knowledge. (Source: The Resilience and Adaptive Management Group, University of Alaska Anchorage)

Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has often been used in the anthropological field about indigenous peoples’ knowledge, that refers to a holistic world view together with the practice and knowledge generated through generations. The term ‘local knowledge’ is used typically as a generic term for knowledge that is generated through local observations about the local environment held by a specific group of people (e.g. Berkes & Folke, 2002). The more specific term local environmental knowledge (LEK) or local ecological knowledge is distinguished from the more widely interpreted term local knowledge. In this research, we refer to LEK. LEK incorporates the depth of the community knowledge, and as Berkes & Folke (2002, p. 143) write, “publications, data records, and computer databases are often not adequate to serve the institutional memory”. C.R. Menzies writes that “All traditional knowledge is local, but not all local knowledge is traditional” (2006, p. 108).

What is common for both LEK and TEK is that they are both detailed situated knowledge that can be both collective and individual. Local (ecological) knowledge usually has less temporal depth than indigenous knowledge according to Berkes & Folke (2002) and environmental knowledge is created by people from observations and understandings. Studies have shown that LEK not only exists in indigenous communities, but also in non-indigenous, resource-dependent communities, such as farming and fishing communities, as well among observant individuals, whether from rural or urban backgrounds, and whether original inhabitants or migrants (e.g. Schulman, 2007). So LEK can be non-indigenous and non-traditional knowledge about the environment among observant individuals and the community.

Local knowledge itself can be determined in many ways and Antweiler (1998) has compiled these into a comprehensive list which is summarized below:

Term, synonyms Meaning, salient aspect, implicit significance, antonym
Indigenous knowledge (internationally the most widespread term) Culturally integrated knowledge; knowledge of small, marginal/non-western groups
Local knowledge Knowledge rooted in local or regional culture and ecology
Traditional knowledge Handed down, old, oral
People’s knowledge Broadly disseminated knowledge, knowledge as potential for political resistance, as opposed to elite knowledge
Community knowledge Related to small social units
Everyday knowledge, practical
Informal, practical, applied, as opposed to academic, specialist, expert knowledge or as opposed to ritual  knowledge
Experiential knowledge As opposed to theoretical knowledge, speculation
Experimental knowledge Trial-and-error, as opposed to controlled experiment

Diversity of local knowledge, its branches and their various connotations. (After Antweiler, 1998, p. 5.)

List of Acronyms

ABC Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op

ACIA Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

AFN Assembly of First Nations (Canada)

ANCSA Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

AON Arctic Observing Network BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs (USA)

BLM Bureau of Land Management

BSSN Bering Sea Sub-Network

CAFF Conservation of the Arctic Flora and Fauna

CBM Community Based Monitoring

CBMP Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Progamme

CEMP Community Ecological Monitoring Project

CMMP Community Moose Monitoring Project

DNREA Northern Territory’s Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts (Australia)

DOI Department of the Interior (USA)

ECORA Integrated Ecosystem Approach to Conserve Biodiversity and Minimize Habitat Fragmentation in the Russian Arctic (acronym derived from the Russian name of the project)

EPA Environmental Protection Agency (USA)

FWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

GIS Geographic Information System

GEF Global Environment Facility

GPS Global Positioning System

ICSU International Council for Science

IEM Integrated Ecosystem Management

IK Indigenous Knowledge

INAC Indian and Northern Affairs Canada

IPY International Polar Year

ITK Indigenous and Traditional Knowledge

ITK Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (Canada)

LTK Local and Traditional Knowledge

MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Finland)

NGO Non Governmental Organization

NPS National Parks Service (USA)

NSF National Science Foundation

RAIPON Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Far East and Siberia

RF Russian Federation

TEK Traditional Ecological Knowledge

TKW Traditional Knowledge and Wisdom

UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme

USAID United States Agency for International Development

WMO World Meteorological Organization

WWF World Wildlife Fund

For further information and printed copies contact:

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